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Up to 2015, 660,000 children were recorded as being orphaned by AIDS.4 30% of new HIV infections in Kenya are among people from key populations However, in recent years a number of studies have identified concentrated epidemics among certain groups who are particularly vulnerable to HIV transmission.The government’s current HIV/AIDS strategy, the Kenya AIDS Strategic Framework 2014/2015 – 2018/2019 [pdf] (KASF) acknowledges this, describing the epidemic as “deeply rooted among the general population” alongside “concentration of very high prevalence among key populations.”5It is estimated that 30% of new annual HIV infections in Kenya are among people from key populations.

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The deal brought an end to six weeks of violence in which 1,500 people were killed and 300,000 forced from their homes after a disputed election.

There are fears that the fragile coalition is on the verge of collapse, while fresh elections could plunge the country back into bloodshed, diplomats in Nairobi have warned.

Explore this page to read more about populations most affected by HIV, testing and counselling, HIV prevention programmes, antiretroviral treatment programmes, tuberculosis and HIV, HIV stigma and discrimination, funding the response and the future of HIV and AIDS in Kenya.

Kenya has the joint fourth-largest HIV epidemic in the world (alongside Mozambique and Uganda) in terms of the number of people living with HIV, which was 1.6 million people in 2016.

The KASF 2014/15-2018/19 sets out four objectives over its five-year duration: In 2015, government representatives from Kenya, Zimbabwe and South Africa met to plan the development of a regional roadmap to increase the use of combination HIV prevention services in each country.

Combination prevention mixes behavioural, medical and structural interventions and is widely regarded as the most effective approach to preventing new infections.37 In 2016, Kenya became the second country in sub-Saharan Africa to issue full regulatory approval of pre-exposure prophylaxis (Pr EP), which uses antiretroviral drugs to protect HIV-negative people from HIV before potential exposure to the virus.38.The most recent statistics, from 2010, estimate HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men at 18.2%.8Condom use among men who have sex with men is fairly low but has been rising.In 2013, an estimated 69% of men who have sex with men reported using a condom the last time they had anal sex, up from 55% in 2011.9 Homosexuality is "largely considered to be taboo and repugnant to [the] cultural values and morality" of Kenya.10 The act of sodomy is illegal in Kenya and can carry a prison sentence of up to 14 years.11These legal and social attitudes lead to high levels of stigma and discrimination towards men who have sex with men as well as other members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community, deterring many people from seeking the HIV services they need.HIV prevalence peaked at 10.5% in 1996, and had fallen to 5.9% by 2015.This is mainly due to the rapid scaling up of HIV treatment and care.3 Kenya’s HIV epidemic is often referred to as generalised – affecting all sections of the population including children, young people, adults, women and men.This is disproportionate to how many people from these groups exist within the population. Geographic location is also a factor, with 65% of all new infections occurring in nine out of the country’s 47 counties – mainly on the west coast of Kenya.7.