In each of these areas, the teachers may adapt the environment, modify materials, and select supports. In Chapter 11, suggestions are presented for arranging the classroom environment to enhance student learning, selecting instructional materials and equipment, and scheduling considerations. The before-reading phase includes selecting core vocabulary, using analogies and visual images, having students make predictions, and using concept maps. The authors detail four interrelated elements of curriculum (content, instructional strategies, classroom instructional settings, and student behaviors). Within the first three chapters, Lewis and Doorlag discuss classroom modifications and, in one of their many "Inclusion Tips for Teachers" boxes, present tips for explaining classroom modifications to peers. This text is targeted for elementary special and general educators who are working in inclusive settings with students with disabilities and others who need instructional accommodations.
The during-reading phase includes using strategies and concept maps, reciprocal teaching, and notetaking. Bloomington, IN: Center on Education and Lifelong Learning, Indiana Institute on Disability and Community. The authors present a "Curriculum Adaptation Quick Screen" designed to identify in which of the four elements of curriculum a student may need adaptations. The second part of the book addresses "Adapting Instruction" and "Skills for the General Educator." The authors suggest strategies for modifying materials and activities, altering task requirements, and selecting an alternate task; managing classroom behavior and promoting social acceptance; and arranging the physical and instructional environment to accommodate the needs of students with disabilities. The author describes strategies for working with students with physical, visual, and hearing disabilities, many of which include adaptations to the learning environment.
Illness or injury may result in limitations in mobility that make it necessary to use wheelchairs or scooters.
Some students must avoid specific activities that trigger undesirable reactions.
The after-reading phase includes completing vocabulary lists, predictions, and concepts maps from other phases. This guide begins by exploring a variety of assumptions that teachers may have about teaching and learning. The authors describe the "INCLUDE" strategy, a 7-step process for accommodating the learning and behavioral needs of students in the general education classroom. The first contains ideas to help develop and implement an inclusive education program. In Chapter 3, Implementing Curriculum Adaptations, the authors present guidelines and teaching strategies for implementing adaptations in each of the four elements of curriculum. This booklet is the first volume in an ERIC/OSEP Mini-Library designed to assist teachers with curricular adaptations. Numerous instructional and assistive technology devices and strategies that a teacher may use to modify or adapt instruction are also described. The sixth chapter is devoted to classroom organization strategies designed to reduce extraneous information, consolidate instructional materials, and maximize teaching time. This book is an excellent resource for teachers and administrators as they address the provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 (IDEA '97) that require all students to participate in state and district-wide assessments, or alternate assessments.
(102 pages) Cole, S., Horvath, B., Chapman, C., Deschenes, C., Ebeling, D. It then lays out the planning steps teachers can use to create a lesson for all learners in the classroom, including identifying the instructional plan for most learners and the plan for learners who will need adaptations made in the curriculum and/or instruction. This resource provides real-life examples and tips in such areas as: adapting worksheets and tests for students with reading problems; providing concrete examples for students with cognitive disabilities; creating study guides; explaining computation to students; and promoting positive behavior. The authors also provide suggestions for accommodating the educational needs of students with high- and low-incidence disabilities, students with moderate to severe disabilities, students with ADHD, those who are gifted and talented, those who are at-risk, and students from culturally diverse backgrounds. The second includes hundreds of ideas and strategies for modifying and adapting the curriculum and textbooks, including daily assignments, written language activities, spelling work, mathematic lessons, directions, instructional group size, and assessment. The book also presents guidelines for general and special educators to use as they collaborate to design, implement, and evaluate adaptations effectively. Bloomington, IN: Center for Disability Information and Referral, and Center on Technology and Instruction. Six principles provide the basis for this text: Big Ideas, Conspicuous Strategies, Mediated Scaffolding, Primed Background Knowledge, Strategic Integration, and Judicious Review. This material provides an overview of six principles of effective curricular design: Big Ideas, Conspicuous Strategies, Mediated Scaffolding, Primed Background Knowledge, Strategic Integration, and Judicious Review. Parts III and IV present indicators of the category of disability or special need and assessment strategies for identifying the disability or special need. The author also suggests methods for adapting evaluation materials, including student response modes, and includes a chapter entitled "Reading for Special Populations" that suggests practical classroom methods and techniques. This text is organized into 12 chapters and includes an "Accommodating for Inclusive Environments" feature that presents suggestions for including students with disabilities in the general education classroom. In the first chapter the authors define accountability, assessment, and testing; list six reasons why students with disabilities should be included in district and statewide accountability systems; and include a checklist entitled "Participation Decision-Making Form" to help the IEP team determine whether the student should participate in the regular or alternate assessment of the state or district.
As they experience success in the classroom, motivation and learning increase, and overall student outcomes improve. A change in focus: Teaching diverse learners within an inclusive elementary school classroom. The authors present a list of modifications that can be made for diverse learners in language arts activities in three areas: (a) context for learning; (b) instructional strategies/materials; and (c) organizational and study skills.
It is not always obvious what adaptations, accommodations, or modifications would be beneficial for a particular student, or how changes to the curriculum, its presentation, the classroom setting, or student evaluation might be made. General educators' instructional adaptation for students with learning disabilities. This article looks at instructional adaptation that teachers can make to meet the needs of students with learning disabilities in the area of mathematics. Within the context for learning category, the article suggests providing clear transitions between activities, creating a non-distracting environment, and sending home a duplicate set of books.
For example, students with asthma may need to avoid specific inhalants in a science lab.
Flexibility plays a key role in supporting the success of students with health impairments as many health conditions by nature are unpredictable.
We have included a description of each resource so that readers can select the ones that are most relevant to their needs and their students. For example, teacher can award regular letter grades, or use a variety of alternative methods that allow the student to demonstrate that he or she has mastered the content. The systematic adaptation of instructional materials and techniques for problem learners. The author suggests that, in order to be effective in adapting materials and methods, the characteristics of the material or instructional technique and the characteristics of the learner must be compared. Effective accommodations for students with exceptionalities. Four categories of accommodations are discussed—altering the instructional grouping or arrangement, altering the lesson format, altering the goals, and altering the educator's teaching style. These methods include curriculum-based measurement with peer-assisted learning strategies. The authors also suggest modifications that can be made within reading, writing, listening, and speaking activities that are an integral component of all language arts activities. The author suggests four strategies for altering instructional procedures to assist the student with the mastery of content: teaching textbook structure, teaching previewing strategies, providing advance organizers to the student, and preteaching critical vocabulary. Strategies include environmental adaptations such as using proximity control and incorporating movement into lessons, and adaptations to the way the material is presented, such as developing graphic organizers, making copies of overheads and board notes, and breaking assignments into smaller chunks. The authors address adaptations and accommodations to the instructional process within several of this book's 12 chapters.
Contact information for book publishers is provided at the end of this document, so that readers can easily obtain those resources of interest to them. If an alternative method is used, the teacher must select a grading alternative that corresponds to the method selected. Solutions are presented for modifying the instructional level of the material, addressing the learning characteristics of the student, and matching the motivational characteristics of the student with the demands of the material. Guidelines are included for evaluating the accommodations selected, as are suggestions for accommodations in five areas—increasing student participation in large group instruction, textual accommodations, sequencing or assignment completion, following instructions, and teaching test-taking skills. As part of this approach, the authors describe the use of weekly assessment of student progress; classwide bi-weekly student feedback so that students can track their own learning and progress; and classwide teacher reports, which include recommendations for what to teach, how to group students for instruction on specific skills, and using computer-assisted instruction and peer-assisted learning strategies with specific students. Finally, the author describes the implementation of self-questioning, active reading, and the use of study cards to help students master the content presented in textbooks. The author also recommends varying assessment procedures, including portfolio assessment, oral exams, and informal measures. In Chapter 1, they suggest a series of questions for the teacher to ask to evaluate the efficacy of instruction and make modifications accordingly.
Adaptations, accommodations, and modifications need to be individualized for students, based upon their needs and their personal learning styles and interests.